Current methods for biodiversity conservation face significant challenges as a result of the effects of climate change. Despite being protected within reserve boundaries, changing temperature and precipitation patterns will interact with already-existing drivers like habitat loss to influence species distributions. Because targets (for example, species) are currently managed within spatially and temporally static reserves, this situation poses fundamental challenges to current approaches for biodiversity conservation. Some populations and species will no longer be able to survive in reserves established for their protection as a result of shifting species distributions. A change in disturbance patterns may also make it easier for invasive species to colonize protected areas. The loss of biodiversity and the associated burdens on global health are multifaceted, complex problems that cut across sectors, disciplines, and cultural barriers. They demand bold, coherent and collaborative solutions through integrated approaches such as One Health.